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 GNU Free Documentation License
                         Version 1.1, March 2000
      Copyright (C) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
          59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
      Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
      of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
 written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
 effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
 modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.  Secondarily,
 this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit
 for their work, while not being considered responsible for
 modifications made by others.
    This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license
 designed for free software.
    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
 software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
 can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
 whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
 This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
 placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the
 terms of this License.  The "Document", below, refers to any such
 manual or work.  Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
 addressed as "you".
    A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
 modifications and/or translated into another language.
    A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
 of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
 (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
 within that overall subject.  (For example, if the Document is in part a
 textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
 mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
    The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
 that says that the Document is released under this License.
    The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
 the Document is released under this License.
    A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
 represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
 public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to
 text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format
 whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent
 modification by readers is not Transparent.  A copy that is not
 "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or
 XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML
 designed for human modification.  Opaque formats include PostScript,
 PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
 processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated
 HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
    The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
 this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
 conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
 copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
 compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
 you may publicly display copies.
 If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
 and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose
 the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
 the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you
 as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present the
 full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible.
 You may add other material on the covers in addition.  Copying with
 changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of
 the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim
 copying in other respects.
    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
 a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
 Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
 general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
 charge using public-standard network protocols.  If you use the latter
 option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
 distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
 Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
 until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
 copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
 the public.
    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
 the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
 give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the
 Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of
 it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
   A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
      from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
      (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
      of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
      if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
   B.  List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
      entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
      Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
      authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has
      less than five).
   C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
      Version, as the publisher.
   D.  Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
      adjacent to the other copyright notices.
   F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
      giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
      terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
      Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license
   H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to
      it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
      publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
      there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one
      stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
      given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
      Version as stated in the previous sentence.
   J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
      public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
      the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
      it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
      You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
      least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
      publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
   K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
      preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
      substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
      and/or dedications given therein.
   L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in
      their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the equivalent
      are not considered part of the section titles.
   M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section may
      not be included in the Modified Version.
   N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to
      conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
 of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
    You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
 parties-for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and
 a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through
 arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already includes
 a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by
 arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you
 may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
 license notice.
    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
 copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant
 Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
    In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History"
 in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
 "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements",
 and any sections entitled "Dedications".  You must delete all sections
 entitled "Endorsements."
 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
 released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
 License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
 the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
 verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
 distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
 copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
 License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
 distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of
 the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
 compilation.  Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this
 License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
 with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are
 not themselves derivative works of the Document.
    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
 of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
 covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.  Otherwise
 they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
 translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.  Replacing
 Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from
 their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or
 all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these
 Invariant Sections.  You may include a translation of this License
 provided that you also include the original English version of this
 License.  In case of a disagreement between the translation and the
 original English version of this License, the original English version
 will prevail.
 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
 as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
 copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
 automatically terminate your rights under this License.  However,
 parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties
 remain in full compliance.
 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
 GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new versions
 will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
 detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
 Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
 the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
 notices just after the title page:
      Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
      under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
      or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
      with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
      Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
      A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
      Free Documentation License".
    If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
 instead of saying which ones are invariant.  If you have no Front-Cover
 Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being
 LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.
    If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
 permit their use in free software.
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